“No Russian” is a controversial level in the 2009 video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. In the level, the player controls Joseph Allen, an undercover CIA agent who participates in a mass shooting at a Moscow airport to gain the trust of a Russian terrorist group. The leader of the terrorists, Vladimir Makarov, tells his co-conspirators, “Remember, no Russian”, implying that speaking Russian would reveal their ethnic origins and affiliation to the Russian ultranationalists. At the end of the level, the group’s leader kills Allen and reveals that he intended for Russian officials to find Allen’s body and believe that the attack was instigated by the United States. The player is not required to kill any civilians and can skip the level altogether without any penalties.
Game designer Mohammad Alavi was heavily involved in the level’s development. Alavi wanted the level to explain why Russia would invade the United States, and create an emotional connection between the player and Makarov. Much of the level’s development was spent designing the massacre portion, which Alavi did not want to feel too contrived or traumatic. Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2’s developer Infinity Ward and publisher Activision were both supportive of the level’s inclusion, though several game testers expressed disapproval and one refused to play the level at all.
Prior to the release of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, gameplay footage from “No Russian” was leaked on the Internet. This early footage divided opinions among video game journalists, although most decided to wait until they could play the level to judge its quality. After the game’s release, “No Russian” sparked significant controversy for letting players partake in a terrorist attack. Journalists described the level’s plot as illogical and derided the ability to skip the level. Due to the level’s graphic content, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 was subject to censorship in international versions of the game. “No Russian” was removed entirely from Russian versions. Journalists have since discussed the importance of “No Russian” to the video game industry.
The U.S. Military M274 Truck, Platform, Utility, 1/2 Ton, 4X4 or “Carrier, Light Weapons, Infantry, 1/2 ton, 4×4”, also known as the “Mule”, “Military Mule”, or “Mechanical Mule”, is a 4-wheel drive, gasoline-powered truck/tractor type vehicle that can carry up to 1/2 tons off-road. It was introduced in 1956 and used until the 1980s.
A private equity fund is a collective investment scheme used for making investments in various equity (and to a lesser extent debt) securities according to one of the investment strategies associated with private equity.
Private equity funds are typically limited partnerships with a fixed term of 10 years (often with annual extensions). At inception, institutional investors make an unfunded commitment to the limited partnership, which is then drawn over the term of the fund. From the investors’ point of view, funds can be traditional (where all the investors invest with equal terms) or asymmetric (where different investors have different terms).A private equity fund is raised and managed by investment professionals of a specific private equity firm (the general partner and investment advisor). Typically, a single private equity firm will manage a series of distinct private equity funds and will attempt to raise a new fund every 3 to 5 years as the previous fund is fully invested.
In North Dakota State Board of Pharmacy v. Snyder’s Drug Stores, Inc., 414 U.S. 156 (1973) (1973), the North Dakota Supreme Court, relying on the 1928 decision in Liggett Co. v. Baldridge, held unconstitutional a state statute, under which Snyder’s had been denied a pharmacy operating permit because it wasn’t majority owned by pharmacists.
The questions which were raised by the case were: (1) Does the U.S. Supreme Court have jurisdiction to decide the case, e.g. is it final; (2) was the statute in question constitutional. The Supreme Court answered both questions in the affirmative.
With respect to point (1), the State Board of Pharmacy, being a state agency, is bound by the decisions of the State Supreme Court. Absent an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, it has to abide by what its State’s Supreme Court says regarding the constitutionality of a state law. While the State Supreme Court had remanded the case back to the Pharmacy Board for further proceedings, this did not mean the case was nonappealable. State law allows any party aggrieved by the decision to appeal it in court. Problem is, the board itself is not a party to the decision, but is the tribunal making the decision. Thus, under the law of its state, the Board’s only options to be able to raise the constitutional question are either to defy its own state’s Supreme Court and refuse to grant the license, thus causing Respondent Snyder’s to go back into court again, or for the Board to appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. Thus, since the Board really had nowhere to go to get relief, the U.S. Supreme Court does have standing to hear the case.
With respect to point (2), the case in Liggett regarded a state law that required 100% ownership by pharmacists. The law in this case required a licensee wanting to operate a pharmacy be either a pharmacist or a corporation where the majority of the stockholders were pharmacists. The owner of Snyder’s Drug Stores was Red Owl, a supermarket chain, and it was not shown if the majority of the stockholders of Red Owl were pharmacists. It was a decision regarding substantive due process. However, the court’s reasoning on substantive due process was not completely clear and not all of the justices agreed on how to decide the cases. As the point in requiring a pharmacy to be majority owned by pharmacists was to provide a higher degree of care and concern over the operation of a pharmacy, the court found the statute to be a constitutional use of legislative power which “bears a real and substantial relation to the public health, safety, morals, or some other phase of the general welfare,”
Pentagon (Hangul: 펜타곤; stylized as PENTAGON; abbreviated as PTG) is a South Korean boy band formed by Cube Entertainment in 2016. The group consists of nine members: Jinho, Hui, Hongseok, Shinwon, Yeo One, Yan An, Yuto, Kino and Wooseok. Originally composed of ten members, E’Dawn left the group and the record label on November 14, 2018. They were introduced through the Mnet survival show Pentagon Maker. Pentagon released their self-titled debut EP on October 10, 2016.
Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps (also known as Wall Street 2 or Wall Street 2: Money Never Sleeps) is a 2010 American drama film directed by Oliver Stone, a sequel to Wall Street (1987). It stars Michael Douglas, Shia LaBeouf, Josh Brolin, Carey Mulligan, Frank Langella, Susan Sarandon and Eli Wallach in his final film role.
The film takes place in New York, 23 years after the original, and revolves around the 2008 financial crisis. Its plot centers on a reformed Gordon Gekko, played by Douglas, acting as an antihero rather than a villain, and follows his attempts to repair his relationship with his daughter Winnie (Mulligan), with the help of her fiancé, Jacob Moore (LaBeouf).
Principal photography took place in New York between September and November 2009. After having its release date moved twice, Money Never Sleeps was released theatrically worldwide on September 24, 2010, by 20th Century Fox. Prior to its official release, many journalists connected to the financial industry were reportedly shown advance screenings of the film.
Despite opening to positive reception at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival, Money Never Sleeps received mixed reviews from critics. Though failing to meet its critical expectations, the film was successful at the box office, topping the United States’s ranking during its opening weekend, and earning a worldwide total of $134 million in ticket sales, and more than $15 million on DVD.
Uber is a transportation network company (TNC) headquartered in San Francisco, California. Uber offers services including peer-to-peer ridesharing, taxi cab hailing, food delivery, and a bicycle-sharing system. The company has operations in 785 metropolitan areas worldwide. Its platforms can be accessed via its websites and mobile apps. Uber has been so prominent in the sharing economy that the changes in industries as a result of it have been referred to as Uberisation and many startups have described their products as “Uber for X”.The name “Uber” is a reference to the common (and somewhat colloquial) word uber, meaning “topmost” or “super”, and having its origins in the German word über, cognate with over, meaning “above”.Uber is estimated to have 100 million worldwide users and a 69% market share in the United States.Uber is a gold member of the Linux Foundation and has a five star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.Most jurisdictions regulate TNCs such as Uber and TNCs are banned from operating in some jurisdictions. For more information, see Legality of TNCs by jurisdiction.
The Mexican Drug War (also known as the Mexican War on Drugs; Spanish: guerra contra el narcotráfico en México) is an ongoing asymmetric low-intensity conflict between the Mexican government and various drug trafficking syndicates. In 2006 when the Mexican military began to intervene, the government’s principal goal was to reduce drug-related violence. The Mexican government has asserted that their primary focus is on dismantling the powerful drug cartels, rather than on preventing drug trafficking and demand, which is left to U.S. functionaries.Although Mexican drug trafficking organizations have existed for several decades, their influence increased after the demise of the Colombian Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the cocaine entering the United States. Arrests of key cartel leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, have led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States.Federal law enforcement has been reorganized at least five times since 1982 in various attempts to control corruption and reduce cartel violence. During that same period there have been at least four elite special forces created as new corruption-free soldiers who could do battle with Mexico’s endemic bribery system. Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sales range from $13.6 to $49.4 billion annually.The U.S. Congress passed legislation in late June 2008 to provide Mexico with US$1.6 billion for the Mérida Initiative to provide Mexico with law enforcement training and equipment, as well as technical advice to strengthen the national justice systems. By the end of Felipe Calderón’s administration (December 1, 2006 – November 30, 2012), the official death toll of the Mexican Drug War was at least 60,000. Estimates set the death toll above 120,000 killed by 2013, not including 27,000 missing. Since taking office, Andrés Manuel López Obrador declared that the war was over; however, his comment was met with criticism as homicide rates continued in high numbers.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (Russian: Николай II Алекса́ндрович, tr. Nikolai II Aleksandrovich; 18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. He was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody or Vile Nicholas by his political adversaries due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Russian Revolution, the execution of political opponents, and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). Soviet historians portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects.Russia was defeated in the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War, which saw the annihilation of the reinforcing Russian Baltic Fleet after being sent on its round-the-world cruise at the naval Battle of Tsushima, off the coasts of Korea and Japan, the loss of Russian influence over Manchuria and Korea, and the Japanese annexation to the north of South Sakhalin Island. The Anglo-Russian Entente was designed to counter the German Empire’s attempts to gain influence in the Middle East, but it also ended the Great Game of confrontation between Russia and the United Kingdom. When all Russian diplomatic efforts to prevent the First World War (1914–1918) failed, Nicholas approved the Imperial Russian Army mobilization on 30 July 1914, which gave Imperial Germany formal grounds to declare war on Russia on 1 August 1914. An estimated 3.3 million Russians were killed in the First World War. The Imperial Russian Army’s severe losses, the High Command’s incompetent management of the war efforts, and lack of food and supplies on the home front were all leading causes of the fall of the House of Romanov.
Following the February Revolution of 1917, Nicholas abdicated on behalf of himself and his son and heir, the Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich. He and his family were imprisoned and transferred to Tobolsk in late summer 1917. On 30 April 1918, Nicholas, Alexandra, and their daughter Maria were handed over to the local Ural Soviet council in Ekaterinburg (renamed Sverdlovsk during the Soviet era); the rest of the captives followed on 23 May. Nicholas and his family were executed by their Bolshevik guards on the night of 16/17 July 1918. The remains of the imperial family were later found, exhumed, identified and re-interred with elaborate State and Church ceremony in St. Petersburg on 17 July 1998.
In 1981, Nicholas, his wife, and their children were recognized as martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia in New York City. On 15 August 2000, they were canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church as passion bearers, commemorating believers who face death in a Christ-like manner.